A Brief History of India Spectrum 2019-20 New Edition

 

Content – Full Topics Details

UNIT 1

SOURCES AND APPROACHES 1

Chapter 1 –

Sources for the History of Modern India 1
Archival Materials 2
Central Government Archives 2
Archives of the State Governments 3
Archives of Three Presidencies 4
Archives of Other European Powers 4
Judicial Records 5
Published Archives 5
Private Archives 6
Foreign Repositories 6
Biographies, Memoirs and Travel Accounts 7
Newspapers and Journals 8
Oral Evidence 9
Creative Literature 10
Painting 10
Summary 12

Chapter 2 –

Major Approaches to the History of Modern India 13
Colonial Approach/ Historiography 14
Nationalist Historiography/ Approach 14
Marxist Historiography/ Approach 15
Subaltern Approach/ Historiography 16
Communalist Approach 17
Cambridge School 18
Liberal and Neo-Liberal Interpretations 18

Feminist Historiography 18
Summary 19

UNIT 2

ADVENT OF EUROPEANS AND 21
CONSOLIDATION OF BRITISH
POWER IN INDIA

Chapter 3

The advent of the Europeans in India 21
The Portuguese in India 22
The Quest for and Discovery of a 22
Sea Route to India
From Trading to Ruling 23
Portuguese State 28
Portuguese Lose Favour with the Mughals 30
The decline of the Portuguese 32
Significance of the Portuguese 34
The Dutch 35
Dutch Settlements 35
Anglo-Dutch Rivalry 36
Decline of the Dutch in India 36
The English 37
Charter of Queen Elizabeth I 37
Progress of the English Company 38
The French 42
Foundation of French Centres in India 42
The Anglo-French Struggle for Supremacy: the 44
Carnatic Wars
Causes for the English Success and the 51
French Failure
The Danes 53
Why the English Succeeded against 53
Other European Powers
Structure and Nature of the Trading Companies 53
Naval Superiority 54
Industrial Revolution 54
Military Skill and Discipline 54
Stable Government 54

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Lesser Zeal for Religion 55
Use of Debt Market 55
Summary 55
Boxes
Portuguese Rise and Fall 33
Formative Years of the East India Company 41
Rise and Fall of Dupleix in India 47
About the Goods in Trade Initially 52

Chapter 4

India on the Eve of British Conquest 59
Challenges before the Mughals 59
External Challenges 59
Weak Rulers after Aurangzeb—An
Internal Challenge 62
Causes of Decline of Mughal Empire 64
Shifting Allegiance of Zamindars 65
Jagirdari Crisis 65
Rise of Regional Aspirations 68
Economic and Administrative Problems 69
Rise of Regional States 69
Survey of Regional Kingdoms 70
Nature and Limitations of Regional States 73
Socio-Economic Conditions 74
Agriculture 74
Trade and Industry 74
Status of Education 76
Societal Set-up 76
Developments in Art, Architecture 78
and Culture
Summary 79
Boxes
Why Many Empire-shaking Battles at Panipat? 61
Causes of the Mughals’ Downfall in a Nutshell 68

Chapter 5

Expansion and Consolidation of British 81
Power in India
The British Imperial History 81
Was the British Conquest Accidental or Intentional? 81
When did the British Period Begin in India? 83

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Causes of British Success in India 84
Superior Arms, Military and Strategy 84
Better Military Discipline and Regular Salary 84
Civil Discipline and Fair Selection System 85
Brilliant Leadership and Support of Second 85
Line Leaders
Strong Financial Backup 85
Nationalist Pride 86
British Conquest of Bengal 86
Bengal on the Eve of British Conquest 86
Alivardi Khan and the English 87
Challenges Before Siraj-ud-daula 87
The Battle of Plassey 88
Mir Kasim and the Treaty of 1760 89
The Battle of Buxar 90
The Treaty of Allahabad 92
Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72) 93
Mysore’s Resistance to the Company 94
The Wodeyar / Mysore Dynasty 94
Rise of Haidar Ali 94
First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69) 95
Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) 96
Third Anglo-Mysore War 97
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War 98
Mysore After Tipu 100
Anglo-Maratha Struggle for Supremacy 101
Rise of the Marathas 101
Entry of the English into Maratha Politics 101
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) 102
Second Anglo Maratha War (1803-1805) 104
Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-19) 106
Why the Marathas Lost 107
Conquest of Sindh 109
Rise of Talpuras Amirs 109
Gradual Ascendancy over Sindh 109
Criticisms of the Conquest of Sindh 113
Conquest of Punjab 113
Consolidation of Punjab under the Sikhs 113
Ranjit Singh and the English 115
Punjab After Ranjit Singh 116
First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46) 116

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Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49) 118
Significance of the Anglo-Sikh Wars 119
Extension of British Paramountcy Through 119
Administrative Policy
The Policy of Ring-Fence 119
Subsidiary Alliance 120
Doctrine of Lapse 123
Relations of British India with Neighbouring 125
Countries
Anglo-Bhutanese Relations 125
Anglo-Nepalese Relations 126
Anglo-Burmese Relations 126
Anglo-Tibetan Relations 128
Anglo-Afghan Relations 129
John Lawrence and the Policy of 130
Masterly Inactivity
Lytton and the Policy of Proud Reserve 131
British India and the North-West Frontier 132
Summary 133
Boxes
Robert Clive 92
Estimate of Tipu Sultan 99
Annexation of Awadh 124

UNIT 3

RISING RESENTMENT AGAINST 136
COMPANY RULE

Chapter 6

People’s Resistance Against British Before 1857 136
People’s Resistance: Meaning 137
Genesis of People’s Resistance 137
Causative Factors for People’s Uprisings 138
Civil Uprisings 138
Major Causes of Civil Uprisings 138
General Characteristics of Civil Uprisings 139
Important Civil Uprisings 139
Peasant Movements with Religious Overtones 152
Tribal Revolts 153
Different Causes for Mainland and 153

North-Eastern Tribal Revolts
Characteristics of Tribal Revolts 155
Important Tribal Movements of Mainland 155
Tribal Movements of the North-East 160
Sepoy Mutinies 162
Causes 162
Important Mutinies 162
Weaknesses of People’s Uprisings 163
Summary of 164
Boxes
Tribal Movements: Period, Region, Causes at a Glance 159
North-East Frontier Tribal Movements: Year, 161
The region, Major Causes

Chapter 7

The Revolt of 1857 167
Simmering Discontent 167
The 1857 Revolt: the Major Causes 168
Economic Causes 168
Political Causes 169
Administrative Causes 170
Socio-Religious Causes 170
Influence of Outside Events 170
Discontent Among Sepoys 170
Beginning and Spread of the Revolt 171
The Spark 171
Starts at Meerut 172
Choice of Bahadur Shah as Symbolic Head 172
Civilians Join 173
Storm Centres and Leaders of the Revolt 174
Suppression of the Revolt 176
Why the Revolt Failed 177
All-India participation was absent 177
All classes did not join 177
Poor Arms and Equipment 178
Uncoordinated and Poorly Organised 178
No Unified Ideology 178
Hindu-Muslim Unity Factor 179
Nature of the Revolt 179

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Consequences of 182
Significance of the Revolt 185
Summary of 186
Box
White Mutiny 184

UNIT 4

REFORM MOVEMENTS 188

Chapter 8

Socio-Religious Reform Movements: 188
General Features
Factors Giving Rise to Desire for Reform 188
Impact of British Rule 189
Social Conditions Ripe for Reform 189
Opposition to Western Culture 190
New Awareness among Enlightened Indians 190
Social and Ideological Bases of Reform 191
Middle Class Base 191
The Intellectual Criteria 192
Two Streams 193
The direction of Social Reform 194
Fight for Betterment of Position of Women 195
Struggle Against Caste-Based Exploitation 199
Summary of 204

Chapter 9

A General Survey of Socio-Cultural 206
Reform Movements
Socio-Cultural Reform Movements and their Leaders 206
Raja Rammohan Roy and Brahmo Samaj 206
Prarthana Samaj 211
Young Bengal Movement and 212
Henry Vivian Derozio
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar 213
Balshastri Jambhekar 214
Paramahansa Mandali 214
Satyashodhak Samaj and Jyotiba or Jyotirao Phule 215
Gopalhari Deshmukh ‘Lokahitawadi’ 215
Gopal Ganesh Agarkar 216
The Servants of India Society 216

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Social Service League 216
The Ramakrishna Movement and 217
Swami Vivekananda
Dayananda Saraswati and Arya Samaj 220
Seva Sadan 223
Dev Samaj 224
Dharma Sabha 224
Bharat Dharma Mahamandala 224
Radhaswami Movement 225
Sree Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana (SNDP) 225
Movement
Vokkaliga Sangha 226
Justice Movement 226
Self-Respect Movement 226
Temple Entry Movement 227
Indian Social Conference 227
Wahabi/Walliullah Movement 227
Titu Mir‘s Movement 228
Faraizi Movement 228
Ahmadiyya Movement 229
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement 229
The Deoband School (Darul Uloom) 231
Parsi Reform Movements 232
Sikh Reform Movements 232
The Theosophical Movement 233
Significance of Reform Movements 234
Positive Aspects 234
Negative Aspects 236
Summary 237

UNIT 5

THE STRUGGLE BEGINS 239

Chapter 10

Beginning of Modern Nationalism in India 239
Factors in the Growth of Modern Nationalism 239
Understanding of Contradictions in Indian and 240
Colonial Interests
Political, Administrative and Economic 240
Unification of the Country
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Western Thought and Education 241
Role of Press and Literature 241
Rediscovery of India’s Past 242
Progressive Character of Socio-religious 242
Reform Movements
Rise of Middle Class Intelligentsia 242
Impact of Contemporary Movements 242
in the World
Reactionary Policies and Racial Arrogance 243
of Rulers
Political Associations Before the Indian 243
National Congress
Political Associations in Bengal 244
Political Associations in Bombay 245
Political Associations in Madras 245
Pre-Congress Campaigns 246
Summary 246

Chapter 11

Indian National Congress: Foundation and the 247
Moderate Phase
Foundation of Indian National Congress 247
Was It a Safety Valve? 248
Aims and Objectives of the Congress 249
Era of Moderates (1885-1905) 249
Important Leaders 249
Moderate Approach 249
Contributions of Moderate Nationalists 250
Economic Critique of British Imperialism 250
Constitutional Reforms and Propaganda in 251
Legislature
Campaign for General Administrative Reforms 253
Protection of Civil Rights 253
An Evaluation of the Early Nationalists 254
Role of Masses 255
Attitude of the Government 255
Summary 256
Box
Indian Councils Act 1892 252

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Contents

 

UNIT 6

NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1918) 257

Chapter 12

Era of Militant Nationalism (1905-1909) 257
Growth of Militant Nationalism 257
Why Militant Nationalism Grew 257
The Swadeshi and Boycott Movement 261
Partition of Bengal to Divide People 261
Anti-Partition Campaign Under 262
Moderates (1903-05)
The Congress’s Position 263
The Movement under Extremist Leadership 264
The Extremist Programme 264
New Forms of Struggle and Impact 265
Extent of Mass Participation 267
All India Aspect 269
Annulment of Partition 269
Evaluation of the Swadeshi Movement 269
The Movement Fizzles Out 269
Movement a Turning Point 270
The Surat Split 272
Run-up to Surat 272
Split Takes Place 274
Government Repression 274
The Government Strategy 275
Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 276
The Reforms 277
Evaluation 278
Summary 279
Box
Differences between Moderates and Extremists 271

Chapter 13

First Phase of Revolutionary Activities 282
(1907-1917)
Why the Surge of Revolutionary Activities 282
The Revolutionary Programme 283
A Survey of Revolutionary Activities 283
Bengal 283
Maharashtra 286

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Punjab 287
Revolutionary Activities Abroad 287
Decline 291
Summary 291

Chapter 14

First World War and Nationalist Response 294
Home Rule League Movement 295
Factors Leading to the Movement 295
The Leagues 296
The Home Rule League Programme 297
Government Attitude 298
Why the Agitation Faded Out by 1919 298
Positive Gains 299
Lucknow Session of the Indian 300
National Congress (1916)
Readmission of Extremists to Congress 300
Lucknow Pact between Congress and 300
Muslim League
Montagu’s Statement of August 1917 303
Indian Objections 303
Summary 304

UNIT 7

ERA OF MASS NATIONALISM BEGINS 305
(1919-1939)

Chapter 15

Emergence of Gandhi 305
Why Nationalist Resurgence Now 306
Post-War Economic Hardships 306
Expectations of Political Gains for Cooperation 306
in the War
Nationalist Disillusionment with Imperialism 307
Worldwide
Impact of Russian Revolution 307
(November 7, 1917)
Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and Government 308
of India Act, 1919
Main Features 308

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Drawbacks 310
Congress Reaction 311
Making of Gandhi 312
Early Career and Experiments with 312
Truth in South Africa
Gandhi’s Experience in South Africa 315
Gandhi’s Technique of Satyagraha 315
Gandhi in India 316
Champaran Satyagraha (1917)—First Civil 316
Disobedience
Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918)—First 317
Hunger Strike
Kheda Satyagraha (1918)—First 318
Non-Cooperation
Gains from Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda 319
Rowlatt Act, Satyagraha, Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 320
The Rowlatt Act 320
Satyagraha Against the Rowlatt Act— 321
First Mass Strike
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 322
The Hunter Committee of Inquiry 324
Congress View 326
Summary 327
Box
Tolstoy Farm 314

Chapter 16

Non-Cooperation Movement and 328
Khilafat Aandolan
Background 328
The Khilafat Issue 329
Development of the Khalifat-Non-Cooperation 330
Programme
Congress Stand on Khilafat Question 330
Muslim League Support to Congress 331
The Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement 331
Spread of the Movement 333
People’s Response 334
Government Response 336
The Last Phase of the Movement 336
Why Gandhi Withdrew the Movement 337

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Evaluation of Khilafat Non-Cooperation Movement 338
Summary 339

Chapter 17

Emergence of Swarajists, Socialist Ideas, 340
Revolutionary Activities and Other New Forces
Swarajists and No-Changers 340
Genesis of Congress-Khilafat Swarajya Party 340
Swarajists’ Arguments 341
No-Changers’ Arguments 341
Agree to Disagree 341
The Swarajist Manifesto for Elections 342
Gandhi’s Attitude 342
Swarajist Activity in Councils 343
Constructive Work by No-Changers 345
Emergence of New Forces: Socialistic Ideas, 345
Youth Power, Trade Unionism
Spread of Marxist and Socialist Ideas 346
Activism of Indian Youth 347
Peasants’ Agitations 347
Growth of Trade Unionism 347
Caste Movements 347
Revolutionary Activity with a Turn towards 348
Socialism
Revolutionary Activity During the 1920s 348
Why Attraction for Revolutionary Activity 348
after Non-Cooperation Movement
Major Influences 349
In Punjab-United Provinces-Bihar 349
In Bengal 351
Official Reaction 353
Ideological Rethinking 353
Summary 356

Chapter 18

Simon Commission and the Nehru Report 357
Appointment of the Indian Statutory Commission 357
Indian Response 358
Police Repression 360
Impact of Appointment of Simon Commission 360
on the National Movement
The Simon Commission Recommendations 360

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Nehru Report 361
Main Recommendations 362
The Muslim and Hindu Communal Responses 362
Amendments Proposed by Jinnah 364
Nehru Report Found Unsatisfactory 365
Summary 365
Box
Dr Ambedkar and the Simon Commission 359

Chapter 19

Civil Disobedience Movement and Round 366
Table Conferences
The Run-up to Civil Disobedience Movement 366
Calcutta Session of Congress 366
Political Activity during 1929 367
Irwin’s Declaration (October 31, 1929) 367
Delhi Manifesto 368
Lahore Congress and Purna Swaraj 368
January 26, 1930: the Independence Pledge 369
Civil Disobedience Movement—the Salt Satyagraha 370
and Other Upsurges
Gandhi’s Eleven Demands 370
Why Salt was Chosen as the Important Theme 371
Dandi March (March 12-April 6, 1930) 371
Spread of Salt Law Disobedience 372
Impact of Agitation 377
Extent of Mass Participation 377
Government Response—Efforts for Truce 378
Gandhi-Irwin Pact 379
Evaluation of Civil Disobedience Movement 380
Karachi Congress Session—1931 381
Congress Resolutions at Karachi 381
The Round Table Conferences 382
First Round Table Conference 382
Second Round Table Conference 384
Third Round Table Conference 387
Civil Disobedience Resumed 388
During Truce Period (March-December 1931) 388
Changed Government Attitude After Second RTC 388
Government Action 389
Popular Response 389

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Communal Award and Poona Pact 389
Main Provisions of the Communal Award 390
Congress Stand 391
Gandhi’s Response 391
Poona Pact 392
Impact of Poona Pact on Dalits 392
Gandhi’s Harijan Campaign and thoughts on Caste 393
Ideological Differences and Similarities between 395
Gandhi and Ambedkar
Summary 399

Chapter 20

Debates on the Future Strategy after Civil 401
Disobedience Movement
The First Stage Debate 401
Nehru’s Vision 402
Nehru’s Opposition to Struggle- 402
Truce-Struggle Strategy
Finally, Yes to Council Entry 403
Government of India Act, 1935 404
Main Features 404
Evaluation of the Act 406
Nationalists’ Response 407
The Second Stage Debate 408
Divided Opinion 408
Gandhi’s Position 409
Congress Manifesto for Elections 409
Congress’ Performance 410
Summary 410

Chapter 21

Congress Rule in Provinces 411
Gandhi’s Advice 411
Work under Congress Ministries 411
Civil Liberties 412
Agrarian Reforms 412
Attitude Towards Labour 413
Social Welfare Reforms 414
Evaluation 414
Summary 415

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UNIT 8

TOWARDS FREEDOM AND 430
PARTITION (1939-1947)

Chapter 22

Nationalist Response in the Wake of 416
World War II
Congress Crisis on Method of Struggle 416
Haripura and Tripuri Sessions: Subhash 417
Bose’s Views
Gandhi and Bose: Ideological Differences 421 Non-Violence versus Militant Approach 421
Means and Ends 422
Form of Government 423
Militarism 426
Ideas on Economy 426
Religion 428
Caste and Untouchability 430
Women 430
Education 433
Second World War and Nationalistic Response 434 Congress Offer to Viceroy 434
CWC Meeting at Wardha 434 Government Attitude and Congress Ministries’ 436
Resignation Government’s Hidden Agenda 436
August Offer 439 Responses 439
Evaluation 440
Individual Satyagraha 440
Gandhi Designates Nehru as his Successor 441
Cripps Mission 442
Why Cripps Mission was Sent 442
Main Proposals 442
Departures from the Past and Implications 443
Why Cripps Mission Failed 443
Summary 445

Chapter 23

Quit India Movement, Demand for Pakistan, 447
and the INA
Quit India Movement 447
Why Start a Struggle Now 447

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The ‘Quit India’ Resolution 448
Gandhi’s General Instructions to 448
Different Sections
Spread of the Movement 449
Extent of Mass Participation 451
Government Repression 451
Estimate 452
Gandhi Fasts 452
Famine of 1943 453
Rajagopalachari Formula 453
The Formula 453
Objections 454
Desai-Liaqat Pact 454
Wavell Plan 454
Why the Government was Keen on a Solution Now 455
The Plan 455
Muslim League’s Stand 455
Congress Stand 456
Wavell’s Mistake 456
The Indian National Army and Subhash Bose 456
Origin and First Phase of the Indian National 457
Army
Summary 460

Chapter 24

Post-War National Scenario 462
Two Strands of National Upsurge 462
Change in Government’s Attitude 463
Congress Election Campaign and INA Trials 464
Election Campaign for Nationalistic Aims 464
Congress Support for INA Prisoners 465
The INA Agitation—A Landmark on 465
Many Counts
Three Upsurges—Winter of 1945-46 466
Three-Stage Pattern 466
Evaluation of Potential and Impact of the 468
Three Upsurges
Congress Strategy 469
Election Results 469
Performance of the Congress 469
Muslim League’s Performance 470
Significant Features of Elections 470

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The Cabinet Mission 470
Why British Withdrawal Seemed 470
Imminent Now
On the Eve of Cabinet Mission Plan 472
Cabinet Mission Arrives 472
Cabinet Mission Plan—Main Points 472
Different Interpretations of the Grouping Clause 474
Main Objections 474
Acceptance and Rejection 475
Communal Holocaust and the Interim Government 476
Changed Government Priorities 476
Interim Government 476
Obstructionist Approach and Ulterior 477
Motives of the League
Birth and Spread of Communalism in India 478
Characteristic Features of Indian Communalism 478
Reasons for Growth of Communalism 479
Evolution of the Two-Nation Theory 485
Summary 489
Box
Wavell’s ‘Breakdown Plan’ 475

Chapter 25

Independence with Partition 491
Attlee’s Statement of February 20, 1947 491
Main Points of Attlee’s Statement 491
Why a Date Fixed by Government for Withdrawal 492
Congress Stand 492
Independence and Partition 492
Mountbatten as the Viceroy 493
Mountbatten Plan, June 3, 1947 493
Indian Independence Act 495
Problems of Early Withdrawal 496
Integration of States 496
Inevitability of Partition 497
Why Congress Accepted Partition 497
Gandhi’s Helplessness 500
Summary 500
Box
Plan Balkan 496

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Contents

 

UNIT 9

INDIA UNDER BRITISH RULE: 501
GOVERNANCE AND OTHER ASPECTS

Chapter 26

Constitutional, Administrative and Judicial 501
Developments
Constitutional Development between 1773 and 1858 502
The Regulating Act of 1773 502
Pitt’s India Act of 1784 503
The Act of 1786 504
The Charter Act of 1793 504
The Charter Act of 1813 504
The Charter Act of 1833 505
The Charter Act of 1853 506
The Act for Better Government of India, 1858 507
Developments after 1858 till Independence 507
Indian Councils Act, 1861 507
Indian Councils Act, 1892 508
Indian Councils Act, 1909 508
Government of India Act, 1919 509
Simon Commission 511
Government of India Act, 1935 511
Evolution of Civil Services in India 513
Cornwallis’ Role 513
Wellesley’s Role 514
Charter Act of 1853 514
Indian Civil Service Act, 1861 514
Statutory Civil Service 515
Congress Demand and Aitchison Committee 515
Montford Reforms (1919) 515
Lee Commission (1924) 516
Evaluation of Civil Services under British Rule 516
Evolution of Police System in Modern India 517
Military Under the British 519
Development of Judiciary in British India 520
Reforms under Warren Hastings (1772-1785) 521
Reforms under Cornwallis (1786-1793)— 522
Separation of Powers
Reforms under William Bentinck (1828-1833) 522
Later Developments 523
Evaluation 523

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Major Changes in Administrative Structure after 1857 524
Genesis of Administrative Changes: 524
New Stage of Colonialism
Administration: Central, Provincial, Local 525
Central Government 525
Provincial Government 526
Local Bodies 527

Chapter 27

Survey of British Policies in India 532
Administrative Policies 532
Divide and Rule 532
Hostility Towards Educated Indians 532
Attitude Towards the Zamindars 533
Attitude Towards Social Reforms 533
Underdeveloped Social Services 533
Labour Legislations 534
Restrictions on Freedom of the Press 535
White Racism 535
British Social and Cultural Policy in India 536
Characteristics of New Thought 536
Schools of Thought 536
Indian Renaissance 537
Dilemma Before the Government 538
Role of Christian Missionaries 538
British Retreat 538
British Policy Towards Princely States 538
British Foreign Policy in India 539
Summary 540

Chapter 28

Economic Impact of British Rule in India 541
Deindustrialisation—Ruin of Artisans and 541
Handicraftsmen
One-Way Free Trade 541
No Steps towards Modern Industrialisation 542
Ruralisation 542
Impoverishment of Peasantry 542
Emergence of Intermediaries, Absentee Landlordism, 543
Ruin of Old Zamindars
Stagnation and Deterioration of Agriculture 544

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Famine and Poverty 544
Commercialisation of Indian Agriculture 544
Destruction of Industry and Late Development of 545
Modern Industry
Nationalist Critique of Colonial Economy 548
British Policies Making India Poor 549
Growth of Trade and Railways to Help Britain 549
One-Way Free Trade and Tariff Policy 551
Effect of Economic Drain 551
Economic Issue a Stimulant to National Unrest 552
Stages of Colonialism in India 552
First Stage 553
Second Stage 554
Third Stage 555
Summary 556
Box
Economic Drain 548

Chapter 29

Development of Indian Press 557
Early Regulations 557
Struggle by Early Nationalists to Secure Press Freedom 558
Vernacular Press Act, 1878 559
During and After the First World War 562
During the Second World War 562

Chapter 30

Development of Education 563
Under Company Rule 563
A Humble beginning by Charter Act of 1813 564
Orientalist-Anglicist Controversy 564
Lord Macaulay’s Minute (1835) 564
Efforts of Thomson 565
Wood’s Despatch (1854) 565
After the Crown Took Over 566
Hunter Education Commission (1882-83) 566
Indian Universities Act, 1904 567
Government Resolution on Education 568
Policy (1913)
Saddler University Commission (1917-19) 568
Education Under Dyarchy 569

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Hartog Committee (1929) 569
Sergeant Plan of Education 570
Development of Vernacular Education 571
Development of Technical Education 572
Evaluation of British Policy on Education 572
Box
Wardha Scheme of Basic Education (1937) 570

Chapter 31

Peasant Movements 1857-1947 574
Peasantry Under Colonialism 574
A Survey of Early Peasant Movements 575
Indigo Revolt (1859-60) 575
Pabna Agrarian Leagues 575
Deccan Riots 576
Changed Nature of Peasant Movements after 1857 577
Weaknesses 577
Later Movements 578
The Kisan Sabha Movement 578
Eka Movement 579
Mappila Revolt 579
Bardoli Satyagraha 580
The All India Kisan Congress/Sabha 581
Under Congress Ministries 581
Peasant Activity in Provinces 581
During the War 582
Post-War Phase 583
Balance-Sheet of Peasant Movements 584

Chapter 32

The Movement of the Working Class 585
Early Efforts 585
During Swadeshi Upsurge 586
During the First World War and After 587
The AITUC 587
The Trade Union Act, 1926 588
Late 1920s 588
Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929) 588
Under Congress Ministries 589
During and After the Second World War 589
After Independence 589

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Contents

 

UNIT 10

INDEPENDENCE AND AFTER 590

Chapter 33

Challenges Before the New-born Nation 590
First Day of Independent India 590
First Government After Independence 591
Challenges 592
Radcliffe’s Boundary Award and the Communal Riots 592
Challenges before the Boundary Commission 593
Regions Most Affected by Riots 594
Challenges Associated with Division of Resources 595
Division of Civil Government 596
Division of Finances 596
Division of Defence Personnel and Equipment 597
Assassination of Gandhi 597
Rehabilitation and Resettlement of Refugees 598
East Punjab 598
Bengal 599
Delhi Pact on Minorities 599
Centres of Refugee Settlements in India 600
Communists and Independence 600
Why Communists were Sceptical about 601
Independence?
Shift from Antagonistic Strategy to 602
Constitutional Democracy

Chapter 34

The Indian States 603
I. The Company’s Struggle for Equality from a 603
Position of Subordination (1740-1765)
II. Policy of Ring Fence (1765-1813) 604
III. Policy of Subordinate Isolation (1813-1857) 604
IV. Policy of Subordinate Union (1857-1935) 605
Curzon’s Approach 605
Post-1905 606
V. Policy of Equal Federation (1935-1947): 607
A Non-Starter
VI. Integration and Merger 607
Plebiscite and Army Action 608
Gradual Integration 608

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Chapter 35

Making of the Constitution for India 610
Background 610
Constituent Assembly 613
Formation 613
Two Constituent Assemblies: India and Pakistan 614
Evaluation of the Assembly for India 615
After Independence 616
Work : Committees and Consensus 616
Box
Drafting Committee 616

Chapter 36

The Evolution of Nationalist Foreign Policy 619
1880 to First World War: Anti-Imperialism 620
and Pan-Asian Feeling
World War I 621
1920s and 1930s—Identifying with Socialists 621
After 1936—Anti-Fascism 622
After Independence 622
Panchsheel and Non-Alignment 623
Boxes
Historical Perspective on Panchsheel 624
Five Criteria of Non-alignment 626

Chapter 37

First General Elections 628
Groundwork for the Elections 628
The Election Commission 628
Legislation for Polls 629
Independent India Goes to the Polls for the 629
First Time
Challenges 630
Parties in the Fray for the Lok Sabha 631
Conduct of Elections 632
Results 633
Box
First General Elections: Winners 634

(xxviii)

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Chapter 38

Developments under Nehru’s Leadership (1947-64) 635
Political Developments 636
Debate Over National Language 636
Linguistic Reorganisation of the States 637
Growth of other Political Parties 639
An Undemocratic Deed 644
Concept of Planning for Economic Development 644
Progress of Science and Technology 646
Social Developments 647
Developments in Education 647
Social Change Under Nehru 648
Foreign Policy 648
Relations with Neighbours 649
India and Pakistan 649
India and China 650
India and Nepal 652
India and Bhutan 652
India and Sri Lanka 652

Chapter 39

After Nehru. . . 653
The Lal Bahadur Shastri Years 653
(June 1964 – January 1966) 684
Early Life 654
Political Journey after Independence 654
Economic Ideas 656
Foreign Relations 660
The Indo-Pak War 661
Shastri’s Death 664
Indira Gandhi: the First Phase 664
(January 1966 to March 1977)
Early Life 664
Political Journey after Independence 665
Developments in the Political System 677
Socio-Economic Policies 686
Tackling Economic Problems 689
The Indo-Pak War of 1971 and the Birth of
Bangladesh 692
Foreign Policy and Relations with other Countries 700
The Smiling Buddha 702

(xxix)

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Contents

The Janata Party Years 704
(March 1977 – January 1980)
Morarji Desai the First Non-Congress 704
Prime Minister
Fresh State Assembly Elections 704
New President of India 705
Downslide of the Janata and Rise of Congress (I) 705
Charan Singh the Prime Minister who never 707
Faced Parliament
Fresh Lok Sabha Elections and End of 708
Janata Party Rule
Legacy of the Janata Rule 708
Social Changes and Movements 712
Indira Gandhi: the Second Phase 713
(January 1980 to October 1984)
Economy 713
Foreign Relations 714
Unrest in States 716
Punjab Turmoil and Operation Blue Star 716
Legacy 719
Boxes
The Tashkent Declaration 663
Indira Gandhi and JP—Both to be Blamed? 671
Text of the Simla Agreement 698
India’s Man in Space 715
The Rajiv Years 720
(October 1984 to December 1989) 720
Problems at the Very Outset 720
The 1985 General Elections 722
Tackling the Tensions in States 723
Positive Steps taken on the Domestic Front 725
The Negative Side 728
Agrarian Unrest 731
Foreign Relations 732
General Elections of 1989 735
The V.P. Singh Years 736
(December 1989 to November 1990)
Kashmir Situation Worsens 736

(xxx)

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Contents

Implementation of the Mandal Commission 737
Report
Mandal to Mandir: the Rath Yatra and Fall 739
of the Government
The Chandra Shekhar Government 740
(November 1990 to June 1991)
Troubled Economy 740
Elections of 1991 741
The Narasimha Rao Years 742
(June 1991 to May 1996)
Economic Reform 742
Panchayati Raj and Nagarpalika Acts 744
Handling Security Issues and Space Tech 745
Foreign Policy 745
Negative Aspects 746
Kashmir 748
General Elections of 1996 749
Rise of the Dalit Voice 749
Between 1996 and 1999: Three Prime Ministers 750
Vajpayee’s Short-Lived Term as Prime Minister 751
United Front Government: Deve Gowda and 751
I.K. Gujral
General Elections 753
NDA Years 753
(March 1998 to October 1999)
Pokhran II: Operation Shakti 754
The Lahore Summit 755
Kargil War 755
NDA: Second Stint 756
(October 1999 to May 2004)
Economic and Social Steps 756
Terrorist Trouble and Relations with Pakistan 757
Relations with US 758
Kashmir Elections 758
The Downside 758
Significance of NDA 759
2004 General Election 759

(xxxi)

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Contents

The UPA Years 760
(May 2004 to May 2009; May 2009 to May 2014)
UPA Government: First Term
2009 Election and UPA Back in Power 764
The 2014 General Election 775
The NDA Government 777
(May 2014 – May 2019)
Digital India: a Step Forward in e-Governance 778
Socio-Economic Policies and Programmes of 778
Importance
Security 788
Foreign Relations 792
Social Situation 795
General Election and Return of the NDA 799
Factors behind the NDA Victory 800
APPENDICES
1. Personalities Associated with Specific Movements 803
Swadeshi Movement 803
Non-cooperation Movement 806
Civil Disobedience Movement 810
Quit India Movement 813
2. Governors-General and Viceroys of India: 816
Significant Events in their Rule
3. Indian National Congress Annual Sessions 824
4. Socio-Religious Reform Movements 829
(late 18th to mid-20th century)
5. Famous Trials of the Nationalist Period 836
6. Caste Movements 838
7. Peasant Movements 840
8. Newspapers and Journals 843

 

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        1. अपना ईमेल चेक करें
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        अंत में – मदद करके ख़ुशी हुई 😊

        चेक करके बताओ अभी की आपके पास ईमेल आया या नहीं – नहीं तो टीम परेशान हो जाती है की यार उसे ईमेल नहीं मिला 😊
        Check whether the email came to you now or not – otherwise the team gets upset that it did not receive the email.

        सिर्फ ये वेबसाइट हे एक ऐसी वेबसाइट है जो सही मायने मई स्टूडेंट्स की हेल्प करती है बिना किसी लालच के — सच में 😊
        This website is only a website that truly helps the students without any greed – really

        और हां सुनो सब लोग जो भी इस कमेंट को पढ़ रहा है – हम रिप्लाई 100 % करते है स्टडी मटेरियल के साथ – चाहे आंधी आये या तूफ़ान , चाहे गोली ही क्यों न लग जाए 😊😊😊😊😊😊
        And yes listen to everyone who is reading this comment – we reply 100% with study material – whether thunderstorms or storms, even if shot.😊😊😊😊😊

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      1. अपना ईमेल चेक करें
      2. यहाँ इस वेबसाइट पर आए और कमेंट करे
      3. इस वेबसाइट को अपने दोस्तों के साथ साझा करें
      4.BOOKMARK करे इस पृष्ठ को , एक स्क्रीनशॉट ले और अपने दोस्त को भेजें
      5. (अध्ययन सामग्री रोज अपोलोड होती है )

      अंत में – मदद करके ख़ुशी हुई 😊

      चेक करके बताओ अभी की आपके पास ईमेल आया या नहीं – नहीं तो टीम परेशान हो जाती है की यार उसे ईमेल नहीं मिला 😊
      Check whether the email came to you now or not – otherwise the team gets upset that it did not receive the email.

      सिर्फ ये वेबसाइट हे एक ऐसी वेबसाइट है जो सही मायने मई स्टूडेंट्स की हेल्प करती है बिना किसी लालच के — सच में 😊
      This website is only a website that truly helps the students without any greed – really

      और हां सुनो सब लोग जो भी इस कमेंट को पढ़ रहा है – हम रिप्लाई 100 % करते है स्टडी मटेरियल के साथ – चाहे आंधी आये या तूफ़ान , चाहे गोली ही क्यों न लग जाए 😊😊😊😊😊😊
      And yes listen to everyone who is reading this comment – we reply 100% with study material – whether thunderstorms or storms, even if shot.😊😊😊😊😊

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      1.Check your Email 🚔
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      3.Share this website with your friends.👮‍♀️
      4.BOOKMARK THIS PAGE, Take a Screenshot and send it to your Friend 👮‍♂️
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      AT THE END Happy to help 😊😊

      चेक करके बताओ अभी की आपके पास ईमेल आया या नहीं – नहीं तो टीम परेशान हो जाती है की यार उसे ईमेल नहीं मिला 😊😊

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      AT THE END Happy to help 😊😊

      चेक करके बताओ अभी की आपके पास ईमेल आया या नहीं – नहीं तो टीम परेशान हो जाती है की यार उसे ईमेल नहीं मिला 😊😊

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